M. Ruffini, A. Elrasad, N. Afraz, System and Method for Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment (DBA) Virtualization in a Multi-Tenant Passive Optical Network, Patent WO/2018/167 318, Sep., 2018.


N. Afraz, H. Ahmadi, M. Ruffini, Hyperledger Blockchain-Based Distributed Marketplaces for 5G networks, Wiley-IEEE [to be published], 2021.


N. Afraz, H. Ahmadi, and M. Ruffini. Blockchain and Smart Contracts for Telecommunications: Requirement vs. Cost Analysis. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2021, [Under Review]

M. Ruffini, A. Ahmad, S. Zeb, N. Afraz, and F. Slyne. Virtual DBA: Virtualizing Passive Optical Networks to Enable Multi-service Operation in True Multi-tenant Environments. IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 12(4):B63–B73, 2020

N. Afraz and M. Ruffini. A Sharing Platform for Multi-Tenant PONs. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 36(23):5413–5423, Dec 2018

N. Afraz, F. Slyne, H. Gill, and M. Ruffini. Evolution of Access Network Sharing and Its Role in 5G Networks. Applied Sciences, 9(21):4566, oct 2019


N. Afraz and M. Ruffini. 5G Network Slice Brokering: A Distributed Blockchain-based Market. In 2020 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC): Network Softwarisation (NET) (EuCNC2020 - NET), Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2020

M. Hajizadeh, N. Afraz, M. Ruffini, and T. Bauschert. Collaborative Cyber Attack Defense in SDN Networks using Blockchain Technology. In (SecSoft 2020), Ghent, Belgium, July 2020

N. Afraz and M. Ruffini. A Distributed Bilateral Resource Market Mechanism for Future Telecommunications Networks. In 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), December 2019

N. Afraz, Frank Slyne, and Marco Ruffini. Full PON Virtulisation Supporting Multi-Tenancy Beyond 5G. In OSA Advanced Photonics Congress (AP) 2019, page NeT2D.2. Optical Society of America, 2019 [Invited]

N. Afraz and M. Ruffini. A Marketplace for Real-time Virtual PON Sharing. In 2018 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), pages 1–3, Oct 2018 [Best Student Paper Award]

N. Afraz, A. Elrasad, and M. Ruffini. DBA Capacity Auctions to Enhance Resource Sharing Across Virtual Network Operators in Multi-Tenant PONs. In 2018 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC), March 2018

N. Afraz, A. Elrasad, H. Ahmadi, and M. Ruffini. Inter-operator Dynamic Capacity Sharing for Multi-tenant Virtualized PON. In 2017 IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), pages 1–6, Oct 2017

A. Elrasad, N. Afraz, and M. Ruffini. Virtual Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Enabling True PON Multi-tenancy. In 2017 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), pages 1–3, March 2017

N. Afraz and M. Analoui. TCP-ArtaVegas: Improving the Fairness of TCP-Vegas. In 2015 23rd Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering, pages 761–764, 2015

A. Khatoon, N. Afraz, Approaches to Adopt Blockchain Technology for the Internet of Things [under review].